Comp: Apply Styles

Composition Procedure: Apply Styles

  1. Compose non-p paragraphs. Only compose the paragraph styles that the Refiner cannot apply automatically.

  2. Compose special character styles.

Compose Non-p Paragraphs (with Some Exceptions)

Do not compose the following:

  • p, pf, paft, or td paragraphs.
  • Paragraphs that use Word’s built-in list or note styles (“Endnote Text,” ”Footnote Text,” or “List Paragraph”). These paragraphs will be changed to the appropriate style at a later step. Only compose these elements if they have been used incorrectly in the file.

Do not compose spacing variations (f, l, s, or o). Identify only the structural aspects of the paragraphs. A later step will use the Refiner to add the spacing variations.

Compose all other non-p paragraphs, including the following:

  • front matter
  • heads
  • space-break paragraphs
  • interrupting elements (e.g., blockquotes, senselines, epigraphs)

Further information about composing each category of paragraph is presented here, though it is not necessary for these to be performed in any strict order. While composing the document, it can be useful to address a specific type of paragraph (such as blockquotes). At other times, it may be more useful to scroll through the entire document and compose non-p paragraphs as you encounter them. See Composing Non-p Paragraphs Efficiently for tips about using the SAI to help switch between these methods.

In a later step, the Digital Hub will compose non-ScML paragraph styles in the following way when refining the document.

  • Non-ScML paragraph in table: td
  • Non-ScML paragraph in body: p, pf, or paft as appropriate
  • List Paragraphs (up to 5 sublevels): nl to nl5, or ul to ul5
  • Endnote Text or Footnote Text: en or fn as appropriate, depending on the type of note marker used

Compose Front Matter and Heads

Compose the front matter, titles, and heads.

  1. Front matter (e.g., title, series, copyright, dedication)
    1. Note: Copyright sections, in particular, require proper spacing articulation.
    2. The table of contents may need manual articulation to separate elements. For instance, if a book has Part titles, a Conclusion or Epilogue listing may need to be composed as tocf to provide a space above it, thus showing it is a conclusion to the entire book and not just to a Part.
    3. Identify the sections of the book. Front matter includes: Introduction belonging to fm; List of Abbreviations; Publisher’s, Translator’s, and Editor’s Notes. Body includes: Introduction belonging to main text; Conclusion; Epilogue; Afterword. Back matter includes: Appendixes; Glossary; Bibliography/References.
  2. Part titles, Chapter titles, and Heads
    1. After the TOC has been composed, Compose Heads Matching Table of Contents (in the Cleanup tool’s Compose Paragraphs tab) can be run to compose paragraphs matching the table of contents with a corresponding head level. This may not compose all elements correctly, but it can help give preliminary structure to the document. Anything that did not match exactly will be listed in a report upon running this tool.
    2. If heads cannot be composed by the tool, it may indicate a mismatch between the TOC and one or more heads. Based on the specific circumstances of the project, this may need to be addressed during the composition stage, or it may be able to wait until a copyediting stage.
    3. Note: If heads appear in the notes window, the first a-head needs to be composed as ahaft.
    4. If the original manuscript used special rendering on heads or titles that can be removed globally, use find and replace to replace the character styles with Default Paragraph Font.

Compose Footnotes and Endnotes

If the file has embedded footnotes or endnotes, compose fn/en paragraphs automatically by selecting the fn/en checkbox under the Compose Paragraphs tab of the Cleanup tool and clicking OK.

Compose Lists

If the document has list paragraphs that use Microsoft Word's automatic numbering/bulleting feature, convert the note markers to live text before being composed. Pick one of the following approaches based on the quantity and type of lists.

If the file has more regular numbered and bulleted lists, the first two options will typically be adequate for converting list leaders to live text and composing list paragraphs at the same time.

  • Skip List Paragraphs, Refine in Hub: When refining documents, the Digital Hub will convert the first six levels of Word lists to nl and ul list styles up to nl5 and ul5. Levels beyond this will be converted to p, with an alert given. Skip composing list paragraphs at this stage if you intend to use this feature.
  • Cleanup > Compose Paragraphs > nl/ul: Composes nl and ul paragraphs with the appropriate ScML styles. Also converts Word characters that begin list items (numbers, letters, symbols) into literal characters.
  • Cleanup > List Leaders: Converts Word characters that begin list items (numbers, letters, symbols) into literal characters. Compose these paragraphs in Word before uploading to the Digital Hub.

If one of the following conditions is true, it may be best to run the List leaders cleanup and then compose the notes:

  • your document has very deep list levels (seven or more levels)
  • your document requires several numbered list paragraphs (e.g., nlp)
  • Word lists are being used for nonlists or specialized lists (e.g., sbbl)

Compose Regularly Used Paragraph Styles

  1. Regularly used paragraph styles may be composed at this time (e.g., senselines, block quotes, table column heads).
  2. Check footnotes and endnotes. Non-ScML paragraphs should be composed at this time (e.g., fnp/enp).

Compose Space-Break Paragraphs.

This includes but is not limited to the following:

  • unornamented section breaks (psec)
  • continued paragraphs following interrupting elements (pcon, ntcon)
  • poetry stanza breaks
  • copyright data
  • code lines
  • adjacent standalone paragraphs

If the manuscript uses blank lines to indicate articulation (spacing distinctions that need to be retained), do the following:

  1. Compose those paragraphs with the appropriate style.
  2. Select the range of paragraphs to articulate.
  3. Use Articulate Selected Paragraphs from Blanks to add the appropriate “first” paragraph style (e.g., bqf, slf, etc.).

Compose Special Character Styles

Identify any character styles that need to be differentiated from standard i, b, or sm styles.

This includes but is not limited to the following:

  • dispk
  • fighn
  • thn
  • hemb

Apply Default Paragraph Font to remove character styles as needed.

Next Step: Pre-Hub Cleanups